A Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy


In 1956, Benjamin Bloom and some fellow researchers published a taxonomy of educational objectives that has been influential in the research and practice of education ever since. Bloom and his colleagues categorized objectives from simple to complex or from factual to conceptual. The key elements of what is commonly called Bloom’s taxonomy (Bloom, Englehart, Fusrst, Hill, & Krathwohl, 1956; Marzano, 2001) for the cognitive domain are (from simple to complex).

1. Remember: Retrieve relevant knowledge from long term memory.

1.1. Recognizing: Identifying

1.2. Recalling: Retrieving

2. Understand: Construct meaning from instructional messages, including oral, written, and graphic communication.

2.1. Interpreting: Clarifying, Paraphrasing, representing, and translating

2.2. Exemplifying: Illustrating, instantiating

2.3. Classifying: Categorizing, subsuming

2.4. Summarizing: abstracting, generalizing

2.5. Inferring: concluding, extrapolating, interpolating, predicting

2.6. comparing: Contrasting, mapping, matching

2.7. Explaining: Constructing models

3. Apply: Carry out or use a procedure in a given situation

3.1. Executing: Carrying out

3.2. Implementing: using

4. Analyze: Break material into its constituent parts and determine how the parts relate to one another and to an overall structure or purpose.

4.1. Differentiating: discriminating, distinguishing, focusing, selecting

4.2. Organizing: finding, coherence, intergrating, outlining, parsing, structuring

4.3 Attributing: Deconstructing

5. Evaluate: Make judgments based on criteria and standards

5.1. checking: coordinating, detecting, monitoring, testing

5.2. critiquing: judging

6. Create: Put elements together to form coherent or functional whole; reorganize elements into a new pattern or structure.

6.1. Generating: hypothesizing

6.2. palnning: designing

6.3. Producing: constructing

Sumber:

Anderson, W & Krathwohl, R.  2001. A Taxonomy for Learning Teaching and Assessing. A Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. New york: Addison Wesley Longman

Slavin, R. 2009. Educational Psychology Theory and Practice Nine Edition. USA: Pearson Education

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